Confronting the Shadow Education System. What government policies for what private tutoring?
By Mark Bray
2009, 136 с. (23x15 cm)
This book focuses on the so-called shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring. In parts of East Asia it has long existed on a large scale and it is now becoming increasingly evident in other parts of Asia and in Africa, Europe and North America. Pupils commonly receive fee-free education in public schools and then at the end of the day and/or during week-ends and vacations supplementary tutoring in the same subjects on a fee-paying basis.
Supplementary private tutoring can have positive dimensions. It helps students to cover the curriculum, provides a structured occupation for pupils outside school hours, and provides incomes for the tutors. However, tutoring may also have negative dimensions. If left to market forces, tutoring is likely to maintain and increase social inequalities, and it can create excessive pressure for young people who have inadequate time for non-academic activities. Especially problematic are situations in which school teachers provide extra tutoring in exchange for fees from their regular pupils.
This book begins by surveying the scale, nature and implications of the shadow education system in a range of settings. It then identifies possible government responses to the phenomenon and encourages a proactive approach to designing appropriate policies.