Foreword - Российское общество и вызовы времени. Книга вторая
Dear reader, you are holding the second book in the series Russian society and challenges of the time, which is implemented in the framework of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF) by researchers from the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IS RAS) based on the analysis of the results of nationwide sociological research. Conducted in the format of monitoring at a six monthly interval, such research focuses on the study of transformation processes taking place in contemporary Russia in the context of real social situations.
The first wave of sociological monitoring in the project announced RSF (October 2014) coincided with a sharp change in the foreign policy situation, supplemented by internal crises in the financial and economic sphere. Therefore, the purpose of the first wave of monitoring was to measure and understand the condition of Russian society in its «entry» into the new conditions of existence. The set aim required development of a program of research in the process that would both take into account the impact on the public consciousness and behavior of Russians as well as domestic
As the analysis of the results of the first wave monitoring have shown, underlying the functioning of modern Russian society, the basic factors have not suffered any profound transformation, but there are various situational changes that could affect the overall structure of the population, produce decadent mass mentality, and provoke widespread protests and distrust of citizens in state institutions. On the contrary, the desire of a number of leading Western countries to «punish» Russia for its reunification with Crimea, with the support of the
- with all the severity and criticality assessment of situation in the country, the state of social
well-beingof Russians has not gone beyond parameters characteristic of the previously observed period of stabilization and destabilization of the situation in society;
- conflicting mass judgments that people identify with emerging problems of everyday life appeared mainly in the understanding of
co-dependenceof internal and external factors impacting on the development of the social situation;
- there was a change of priorities in the assessment of the main sources of threats to Russia in the mass consciousness: if in 2013, the main things for our fellow citizens were internal threats, then in 2014, the focus shifted to the external;
- the main link joining the opinion of Russians on events and processes which may come from a danger to the country was the Ukrainian crisis: drawing Russia into it and NATO’s eastward expansion, and the related injection of international tension, began to form, according to Russian citizens, the basis of the agenda reflecting the most dangerous trends;
- the attitude of various segments of the population to Western sanctions established against Russia were generally restrained, conditioned by their usual way of life and
well-establishedlevel of consumption, and the willingness of society to economize, and support for measures to strengthen the power of Russia was sufficiently high.
In general, as shown by the autumn (2014) national survey, the
Among the main problems the scientific and analytical program of the second «wave» of monitoring set out to answer, special attention was paid to the following:
- the impact of the most acute phase of the economic crisis on the daily lives of the
socio-demographicand occupational groups;
- the state of institutions of social and political participation of Russian citizens, and the formation of new practices of
self-governmentand their role in addressing pressing problems of Russians;
- the potential of integration of the
multi-ethnicspace of Russia, relations of civil and ethnic identity of Russians in the context of challenges of the time;
- religious meanings prevailing in
post-ReformRussia and their impact on the relationships of a religious-confessionaland secular state and public life;
- new subjects and new trends in the sphere of ethics and practices of communications and their impact on the
socio-psychologicalatmosphere in the country, and mass consciousness and behavior of Russian citizens.
As in the first «wave» of monitoring, the volume of selective total of the research amounted to 4,000 respondents, representing the adult population aged 18 years and older by age cohorts.
The representativeness of sociological information was ensured by the use of a
The second stage of the sampling includes the selection of typical subjects of the Russian Federation within each territorial and economic region. The structure of regionalization is the two megalopolises and 19 other constituent entities of the Russian Federation.
Megalopolises: Moscow and St. Petersburg.
- Northern District — Arkhangelsk Region.
- Northwest District — Novgorod Region.
- Central District — Moscow, Ryazan, Yaroslavl, Tula Region.
Volga-VyatkaDistrict — Nizhny Novgorod Region.
- Central Black Earth District — Voronezh Region.
- Volga District — Republic of Tatarstan, Saratov Region.
- North Caucasian District — Rostov Region, Stavropol Territory, North Ossetia.
- Urals District — Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk Region.
- West Siberian District — Kemerovo, Novosibirsk Region.
East-SiberianRegion — Krasnoyarsk Territory, Irkutsk Region.
- Far Eastern District — Khabarovsk Territory.
- Republic of Crimea.
Third level sampling: within the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, further regionalization was implemented, which is based on the statistical quotas by degree of urbanization of 5 types of communities: megalopolises; administrative centers of constituent entities of the Russian Federation; district administrative centers; urban type settlements; villages.
At the fourth stage sampling, i.e. with direct selection of respondents for the survey by interviewers at set quotas, the quotas were mainly respected by major
There is then an analysis of sociological data collected in the course of the second «wave» of sociological monitoring of the status and dynamics of Russian society in the context of the new realities of the time.
The nationwide research and preparation of materials for the scientific monograph were undertaken by a working group composed of:
Scientific editor —
1. RSF project No
2. For more information, please refer to: Russian society and challenges of the time. Book One. Edited by Gorshkov, M. K., Petukhov,
3. At the stage of quota selection of respondents, equal share of quotas was observed for the following social and professional criteria: 1 — working industries, construction of mines without higher education; 2 — engineers in industry, construction of mines with higher education; 3 — employees in trade, catering, services, transportation, public utilities with comprehensive education (or less), primary and secondary vocational education; 4 — employees of ﬁnancial and insurance companies, trade, services, transport, utilities with higher education; 5 — workers (employees) of universities, schools, health, management (administrative, political), science, art, media, higher education; 6 — employees (technicians, operators, librarians, secretaries, nurses, and others) at universities, schools, health, management (administrative, political), science, media, comprehensive or secondary vocational education; 7 — military, Ministry of Internal Affairs workers, customs, tax services with any education; 8 — students of higher education institutions and pupils; 9 — inhabitants of villages and settlements.